Saturday, 5 May 2012

Emma Heywood nee Ivall (1835-1886), New Zealand Pioneer

Emma Ivall was a daughter of David Ivall (1795-1850), who was the younger brother of Thomas Ivall (1781-1835), my great, great, great grandfather. Most of the information I have on Emma’s life came from Stewart Kington (brother of the author, humourist and broadcaster Miles Kington), who is related to her husband Joseph Martin Heywood. Stewart sent me a transcription of a somewhat rambling document written in 1937 by Miss Emma Heywood (1862-1952), one of Joseph and Emma’s children (the original is held by the Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand). It contains information about their lives. He also sent me a transcription of handwritten notes on the life of Joseph Martin Heywood by G R MacDonald, who between 1951 and 1964 prepared biographical material on Canterbury pioneers, mostly men.

Emma was born 3 Feb 1835 in St Pancras and christened on 2 March 1835 in St Pancras Church. She was the fifth child of David Ivall (1795-1850) and his wife Martha Ivall nee James (1796-1853). They had six other children namely David James (1830-73), Martha James Brisco (1831-99), James (1832-96), Laura (1833-39), Kate Bainbrigge (1836-1917) and Albert (1839-97). Emma’s maternal grandmother Anne, was descended from Edward III.

Emma’s father was a highly successful coach maker. In the 1841 census, David Ivall’s family were living at 158 Tottenham Court Rd, the address of his carriage works. The household consisted of David Ivall (aged 45, a coachmaker), his wife Martha (45) and children Emma (6), Kate (4) and Albert (3).

In 1845 the family moved to 14 Blomfield Road, Paddington, a large house that overlooked the Regent’s Canal. It is still there (but is now number 24).

Emma’s father died on 6 June 1850 when she was aged 15. The 1851 census shows David’s widow Martha Ivall (aged 55, an annuitant), David James Ivall (20, an artist), Martha Ivall (19), James Ivall (18, an apprentice coachbuilder) and two servants living at 14 Blomfield Rd. Emma Ivall (16) and her sister Kate (14) are listed as pupils at a school in Brighton.

Emigration to the Canterbury Province on the South Island of New Zealand was promoted by Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796-1852), whose aim was to create a Church of England colony there. Four ships containing 792 emigrants left England in 1850 and founded Christchurch (in Canterbury) that year. The total number of European (mainly British) settlers in New Zealand increased from about 2,000 in 1839 to outnumber the Maori by 1858 (approximately 56,000 Maori to 59,000 European). By 1872 the European total was 256,000.

One of those persuaded by Wakefield to emigrate to New Zealand was Joseph Martin Heywood (1832-1904). He asked his father, Joseph Benjamin Heywood (1795-1878) for permission but was told that he must learn a skill first. Joseph senior ran a varnish and paint company (Wilkinson, Heywood and Clarke) in King’s Cross. He arranged for his son to learn carpentry for a year at a carriage works. It seems likely it was the one owned by David Ivall (Joseph senior probably supplied him with varnish for his coaches) and that this is how Joseph came to meet his future wife, Emma Ivall. He made a flat pack house (with a loophole in each wall so he could shoot at the Maori!), which he took with him when he travelled with two friends to New Zealand on the Steadfast. It left London on the 27th February 1851 and arrived at Lyttleton (near Christchurch) on 27th June 1851. Joseph and his friends set up a store but it wasn’t successful. A notice appeared in the Lyttleton Times stating that the partnership between Edward Watson Tippets, Alfred Silk and Joseph Martin Heywood as storekeepers and general commission agents was dissolved by mutual consent on 25th March 1855. Joseph then started to run some small ships, which transported goods along the New Zealand coast.

In 1853, Joseph returned to England hoping to become engaged to Emma Ivall, who was then finishing her schooling in France. They did become engaged and he returned to New Zealand. Emma’s mother died on 13 June 1853. Emma inherited approximately £5,000 (equivalent to about £3,500,000 now) in total from the estate of her parents when she reached the age of 21 in 1856.
Emma Heywood nee Ivall c 1856

Joseph came back to England and married Emma on 15 May 1856 at the Parish Church, Hammersmith. He was aged 23 and she was 21. His “Rank or Profession” on the marriage certificate is given as “Gentleman”. One of the witnesses was Emma’s sister Kate. An announcement of the wedding appeared in the Times. Joseph and Emma traveled on the continent for 3 months as their honeymoon and then left for New Zealand on a ship which sailed from London on 11 September 1856 and arrived at Lyttleton on 23 December 1856. The photo below shows a bedspread that has been passed down Emma's family and was reputedly made by her on the journey.
The first letters are unclear but could be EMH, standing for Emma Martin Heywood. The bedspread indicates that the ship was The Egmont. However, the Lyttleton Times (dated January 3rd 1866) contained an item from the passengers (Joseph and Emma are amongst the names listed) thanking the commander of the Ship Glenmark for "the uniform courtesy and kindness with which you have treated us." 

Emma and Joseph had eight children : Emma Louisa (1857-1935), George Ivall (1859-92), Lizzie (1861-1949), Emma (1862-1952), Katie Palliser (1864-65), Henry Martin Arthur Palliser (1866-1949), Mabel Lea (1868-1964) and Ernest Edward (1871-1931). The family lived in Lyttleton until 1861 and then moved to Avonside, Christchurch and later to Armagh St W, Christchurch (where Joseph is listed in the 1881 electoral register).

Emma and Joseph visited England in 1864 where their daughter Katie Palliser Heywood was born. Unfortunately, the child died 7 months later in July 1865 and was buried in the family grave (in Kensal Green Cemetery) purchased by David Ivall. Emma and Joseph returned to New Zealand arriving in December 1865.

There were severe storms in the late 1860s, which meant that station owners were unable to pay their debts to Joseph (by then a merchant as well as a shipping agent). He, like many others, became bankrupt and had to sell a piece of land in Hereford St, Christchurch that had been allocated to him when he emigrated. Joseph later paid back the money he owed and gradually got back on his feet.
This is a photo of Joseph’s office in Christchurch. The sign above it says “Heywood and Co’s, Shipping and Forwarding Agency. Packages Forwarded to all Parts of the World.” His company was chief agent of the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society from 1872. Joseph was also a director of the Provincial Investment Society and Christchurch Gas Company.

Joseph was religious, being a Lay Reader at his Church, a synodsman and churchwarden. He was also involved in setting up an Art Gallery in Christchurch and supported local artists. Macdonald’s biographical notes include the following quote “He was the soul of charity, ever considering others and helping with advice and money beyond measure – with a marvellous efficiency and self effacement:” Macdonald said “He was a splendid colonist, worked desperately hard all his life, able not brilliant, a great family man.”
Joseph Martin Heywood

Emma died on 2 May 1886 in Dunedin aged 52 of heart disease and was buried in Avonside Cemetery, Christchurch.
The grave of Emma Heywood nee Ivall

Her husband Joseph died in Christchurch on 20 October 1904 aged 71 and was buried in the same grave as his wife. Joseph's will (dated 1 Sep 1904) and the accounts for his estate can be viewed (free) on the FamilySearch website. He left £3,000 to each of his unmarried daughters Lizzie and Emma Heywood. His daughter Mabel Lea Sanderson received £2,800. His daughter Emma Louise Hampson was left £1,300 and his sons Henry Martin Palliser Heywood and Ernest Edward Heywood each got £1,300.

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